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Potential Disclosure of Records Impacts Students with Special Needs

June 22nd, 2016

New York City special education students and their parents should be aware of a potential disclosure of student records for the purpose of a class action lawsuit.

Littman Kroooks Special Needs PlanningThe potential disclosure may affect students who had an Individualized Education Program (IEP) prepared between 2003 and 2016 by the New York City Department of Education (DOE), and either attended a state-approved non-public school or were diagnosed or classified as autistic.

The student records are covered by a confidentiality agreement and would only be disclosed to the parties to the lawsuit, their attorneys, experts and the court.

The plaintiffs in the lawsuit, M.G. v. NYC DOE, are children with disabilities (and their parents) who attended State-approved non-public schools or were diagnosed or classified as autistic and claim that certain DOE policies violated the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act by preventing them from receiving special education services.

Parents who object to the disclosure of their children’s records may file an objection form by August 7, 2016 requesting that protected personal information be removed from those students’ records before they are released. Objecting to disclosure will not affect any rights that students and parents may have under the lawsuit or in relation to the DOE.

Learn more about our special needs planning and special education advocacy services at www.littmankrooks.com or www.specialneedsnewyork.com.


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New York Parent Advocates for Ability to Appeal Regents Score

November 19th, 2015

By Sandi Rosenbaum, Educational Advocate, Littman Krooks LLP

Although special education students in New York can pass their Regents exams with lower scores than students without disabilities, they do not have the same ability to appeal if they fall short. One New York parent, whose son was one point away from passing a Regents test, is advocating for change.

Littman KrooksGenerally, students in New York who do not have disabilities must achieve a score of 65 or higher on five Regents exams in order to receive a diploma. However, such students can appeal up to two Regents exam scores as low as 62, provided they earn a passing course grade and demonstrate strong attendance. While a successful appeal does not change the Regents exam grade on the transcript, it does allow the school district to grant a diploma to students who have fallen short on the exam, but otherwise demonstrated mastery of the high school curriculum.

Students with disabilities benefit from the so-called “safety net” and must generally score 55 or higher to pass the Regents exams. On some exams, even a score as low as 45 may suffice if it is offset by another exam score of 65 or better, but this compensatory option does not apply to the Regents exams in English and Math. While the safety net provides meaningful relief to students with disabilities, those who approach, but do not achieve, a score of 55 on the English or Math Regents exams have no ability to appeal for a diploma as do students without disabilities who come within a similar margin of passing.

A Brooklyn resident and mother of an 18-year-old son with a learning disability, took action when her son was poised to come within one point of earning his diploma. He passed four Regents exams, earning scores as high as 79, but was unable to score higher than a 54 in algebra, even after taking the exam three times. She said that, as a high school diploma was essential for her son to be considered for many jobs that he would be capable of performing, she was determined that he would not be denied a diploma over one point on one exam at his anticipated graduation in June 2016.

New York officials responded to her concerns and said that the Board of Regents would vote on a rule in December to allow special education students to appeal for the right to a diploma if they achieve a score of at least 52. Officials said the change would not be a lowering of standards, but an inclusion of special needs students without diminishing their ability to achieve.

Practical Pointer: Students with disabilities may remain in school and continue to receive services until age 21 or until they earn a Regents or local diploma, whichever comes first. Parents must keep in mind that students may earn a Regents or local diploma and a Career Development and Occupational Services Credential, which attests to important work readiness skills and requires work experience. For many students with disabilities, graduating with a Regents or local diploma at 18 does not represent the best option and may deprive the student of the opportunity to develop needed work-readiness skills, as a school district’s mandate to provide a free appropriate public education (FAPE) ends when the diploma is earned. Thus, the decision to appeal must be considered carefully against the benefits the student may receive from potential additional year(s) of schooling while he or she pursues the score of 55.

It remains to be seen whether the opportunity for appeal will apply to both of the English and Math Regents exams simultaneously, or only for one or the other.

 

Learn more about our special needs planning and special education advocacy services at www.littmankrooks.com or www.specialneedsnewyork.com.


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The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) includes siblings for job-protected Leave

September 21st, 2015

Siblings are included in the protections of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) in some circumstances.

Littman Kroooks Special Needs PlanningThe FMLA, enacted in 1993, provides for eligible workers to take unpaid leave for up to 12 workweeks per year because of their own serious health condition or to care for their spouse, parent or child with a serious health condition. Siblings have never been explicitly included in these protections. However, the Department of Labor Wage and Hour Division, which implements the FMLA, has clarified that siblings are protected in certain cases.

The Department has clarified the definition of “son or daughter” in two ways that benefit families who work together to care for a family member with a disability:

First, the Department has clarified that “son or daughter” includes both children under the age of 18, and adult children who are incapable of self care because of a physical or mental disability.

Second, “son or daughter” has been clarified by the Department as including individuals for whom the worker seeking leave is acting “in loco parentis,” which means “in the place of a parent.” This may include siblings who have day-to-day responsibility for caring for the child or adult with a disability.

With these detailed updates from the Department of Labor, it is clear that otherwise-eligible employees who are siblings with the day-to-day responsibility of caring for a brother or sister, including an adult brother or sister incapable of self-care due to a disability, are protected under the FMLA when they must take leave from work to care for their sibling.

 

Learn more about our special needs planning and special education advocacy services at www.littmankrooks.com or www.specialneedsnewyork.com.


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Summer Extended School Year Programs for Children with Disabilities

June 30th, 2015

By Marion M. Walsh, Esq.

The end of the school year can bring relief for many students and parents, but also uncertainty and trepidation about the summer months. The new school year technically beings on July 1, 2015, although most students will not begin school until September. Many students do regress academically, behaviorally or emotionally during the summer months and require Extended School Year (“ESY”) services over the summer. Littman Krooks

Only certain students with disabilities qualify for ESY or summer services, which generally run for six weeks from July 6th through approximately August 14th this year, although some districts may have different dates and shorter programs. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and New York State Regulations technically allow Extended School Year services for students likely to experience substantial regression, as measured by whether the student has regressed academically during breaks during the school year. The CSE may allow ESY services for students who regress emotionally or behaviorally, if appropriate. Specifically, the law provides that the CSE must consider ESY services to prevent substantial regression for students:

• In special classes with management needs that are highly intensive and require a high degree of individualized attention;
• in special classes with severe multiple disabilities, whose programs consist primarily of habilitation and treatment
• who are recommended for home and/or hospital instruction whose special education needs are determined to be highly intensive and require a high degree of individualized attention or who have severe multiple disabilities;
• whose needs are so severe that they can be met only in a seven-day residential program; or
• receiving other special education services who, because of their disabilities, exhibit the need for twelve-month special service and/or program in order to prevent substantial regression.

Littman Krooks special needs
An ESY program is very different from summer school which high schools may offer for typical students. Summer school credit recovery programs focus on the needs of students who have failed classes or need support during the summer months.

For students who are in summer ESY programs, it is important for parents to monitor closely and take immediate steps to rectify any concerns, as the six weeks passes quickly . Too often, school districts throw ESY programs together too quickly and do not ensure appropriate groupings or activities. Be sure to monitor your child’s progress and put all complaints in writing.

Here are some questions our parents have asked about summer programs:

Q: My child’s program only has very disabled peers and looks very different from her school year program. Is this appropriate?
A: Your child’s summer program should allow her to progress in the Least Restrictive Environment. Consider what type of public program your child needs to have interaction with non-disabled peers. The CSE should offer a continuum of placements and the program should have essentially the same level of inclusion as his or her school year program. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals in 2014 found that an ESY program was substantively inadequate, as the CSE failed to consider an appropriate continuum of alternative ESY placements and place the student in his LRE on that continuum. The District claimed the program was appropriate and noted that it only offered certain limited programs in the summer months. But the Court held that: “a child’s LRE is primarily defined by the nature of the child’s disabilities rather than by the placements that the school district chooses to offer.” T.M. v. Cornwall Central School District

Q: How can I monitor my child’s progress?

A: Work closely with your child’s teacher to monitor the work and how he is doing. Pay close attention to the level of supervision and monitoring. Make sure any concerns about bullying are addressed promptly. Here are some questions to start with, in a dialogue with your child’s teacher:

• Is my child working on his or her goals?
• Does this class provide an appropriate group of students?
• Is the program addressing the specific areas of weakness?
• Are staff appropriately trained on her area of disability?
• Is there adequate supervision?
• What about field trips?

Q: My child needs a break from school and we have long family vacations. Can I pull her out of the summer program?

Speak with the CSE and the District and notify staff that you are considering removing your child from the summer program because of needed family time or simply down time. You may also decide that your child needs a recreational program to develop social skills. Ask if you think removing her will have an impact or affect her progress. If your child is in a school district program, it is unlikely that this will cause difficulties. However, do keep in mind if you do not access the summer program for your child and complain about lack of progress or regression in the fall, the CSE may consider the fact that she did not attend the summer program. Also, if your child is in a specialized school, this will probably not be appropriate and the school may state attendance is mandatory. If your child is in a twelve month residential program, this will not be an option.

Q: My child’s CSE in May stated my child did not regress during breaks, but I see significant regression. They had no data. What can I do?

Whenever you disagree with any decision of a CSE, you have the right to file for due progress. While it is late in the year to file for summer, you may file for compensatory services. It’s best to talk to an attorney about the options. Also, in the next school year, be sure to ask the teachers before each break to measure regression. Keep your own records as well, as to basic skills your child has before each break and after.
Q: I do not believe that my child’s ESY program is appropriate and am sending him to a private camp. Can I seek reimbursement from the school district?

Yes. You do have the right to file for due process and may seek reimbursement for private services. If the private summer program you chose offered individually tailored special education services, you may prevail in a claim. Keep in mind that it is the law does not allow recovery for camping and recreation programs, however. A hearing officer could order reimbursement if: 1) there has been a denial of a free appropriate public education; 2) the private services are appropriate and 3) equitable considerations support the claim.
In short, ESY services represent an important aspect of your child’s special education program. If you have questions or do not believe the program is appropriate, it is best to speak to an experienced special education attorney about your child’s case.

 

Learn more about our special needs planning and special education advocacy services at www.littmankrooks.com or www.specialneedsnewyork.com.


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The Rights and Responsibilities of an Adult with a Learning Disability

May 19th, 2014

Adults 21 and over with learning disabilities may face discrimination or lack of access to services in college or the workplace. These individuals must understand their legal rights and responsibilities.

In College:

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act protect adults with learning disabilities who attend college. The laws apply to public institutions and private colleges that receive federal funding and mandate that students with disabilities receive reasonable accommodations. Examples of accommodations include the use of a tape recorder or note taker, or additional time to complete examinations.

In the Workplace:

The Americans with Disabilities Act protects people with disabilities, including learning disabilities, from discrimination in regard to applications, hiring, firing, compensation, advancement and other employment terms. The ADA applies to employers with 15 or more workers. Employers must make reasonable accommodations to the known disability of a qualified employee or applicant, if it would not cause the business an “undue hardship.” Workplace accommodations may include additional training or supervisor feedback, or a quiet workspace.

If individuals with learning disabilities want accommodations, then they have the responsibility of disclosing their disability and providing documentation, in addition to requesting the accommodations that they want. Adults will probably need to provide documentation of their disability from a doctor. This can be done in a confidential meeting with a college disability services coordinator or with an employer. Documentation may consist of a letter from a doctor or other treating professional.

One must also remember that these protections apply to people who are “otherwise qualified” for the college program or employment position in question. One may have to prove that one is qualified. Also, the legal protections against discrimination do not act as an absolute entitlement to a job or a college education.

Most schools and large employers know of the law and are willing to provide reasonable accommodations to qualified people with disabilities, so it may only be necessary to identify oneself as a person with a learning disability and request the necessary accommodations. If a school or employer accommodations are denied, then these rights are enforceable through the legal process, but it is important to evaluate one’s individual circumstances with the help of a qualified attorney.

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Does the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Work for your Child?

May 9th, 2014

By: Giulia Frasca, Esq., Littman Krooks LLP

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, (IDEA), statute expressly provides that students with disabilities are to be educated and included with their non-disabled peers to the “maximum extent appropriate.”  This requirement is sometimes referred to as the “least restrictive environment” (LRE) mandate of the Act, and it is one of only two “maximizing” provisions in the entire statute.   With this language, Congress intended to protect students with special needs from being ostracized or isolated from the general population and requires that students with special needs be included in the general education population to the greatest extent possible.

Specifically, the IDEA  provides that States must have in place procedures assuring that, “to the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled, and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.”  See 20 U. S. C. §1412 (5) (B) as implemented by the Department’s regulations at 34 CFR §§300.550-300.556.
Recent Decision Mandates Inclusive Setting for Summer Program

Recently, the Second Circuit Court of Appeals, in T.M. v. Cornwall, 12-4301, held that the Congressional LRE standard applies to extended school year (ESY) services for students who are approved for twelve-month programs and who benefit from the LRE.    T.M., a student with autism was succeeding with support in a general education preschool setting during the school year.    However, for the summer, the district only offered placement in a self-contained special education classroom and offered T.M. related services only as part of the self-contained classroom experience.  T.M.’s parents rejected the summer placement because it was too restrictive and filed an Impartial Hearing.  The Impartial Hearing Officer (IHO) ruled in the parents’ favor and the district appealed.  The State Review Officer (SRO), who tends to rule in favor of school districts, reversed the IHO’s decision and the parents appealed to the federal district court.  The federal district court affirmed the SRO decision.  T.M.’s parents then further appealed to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals and received the relief requested.

Like the drafters of the IDEA, the Second Circuit judges who ruled in T.M.’s favor intended to draft a decision that would help the many children diagnosed with Autism and other disabilities who have been approved for a 12-month program and who obtain a meaningful educational benefit from an inclusive environment.
LRE Mandate Can Have Unintended Effect

However, school districts often use the LRE provision against parents.  For example, recently, a parent filed an impartial hearing against a school district for failure to provide a free and appropriate education to a student with severe social, emotional and psychiatric conditions whose conditions were exacerbated due to the inappropriate program.  His psychiatrist, the district representative and his parent recommended a residential therapeutic placement for him, but the school district would not approve a residential placement arguing that it is not the LRE.  The school district then issued a placement at a non-public state approved therapeutic day program although his doctors and other professionals maintained that he would further regress there and that it was not appropriate.  Such a position by school districts causes unnecessary delay in providing the student with FAPE, burdensome litigation and extensive costs to both parties that could have been avoided.
In my legal practice, I have encountered several similar situations with regard to students who require specific accommodations, a 1:1 paraprofessional, have severe disabilities, or are diagnosed with Autism, but are high functioning.  In these cases, an inclusive environment may not be appropriate because the student will obtain a meaningful educational benefit only if a restriction is provided.  A mainstream or integrated setting does not work for all students with disabilities.  Each student’s needs are unique and must be treated as such.  It is important for school districts, IHOs and legislators to consider that the IDEA limits LRE only to situations when the nature or severity of the disability is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services can be achieved satisfactorily.  A cookie cutter approach can be more harmful than beneficial when applying the LRE provision of the IDEA to a student’s individualized educational program.
The special education team at Littman Krooks LLP has extensive experience advocating for parents of children with various special needs and helping them to navigate the labyrinth of special education law including cases where school districts may use the LRE against the student.

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Guest Blog: A New Way for Parents to Create a Letter of Intent

May 2nd, 2014

By Michael Pearce, Special Needs Attorney, Founder, Vestidd.com

A new Application solves one of the biggest problems facing every parent of a child with special needs.

How can I continue to provide for the protection well-being of my children after I am gone?  How can I make sure that my child with special needs will be safe and continue receiving the best of care?  Every parent who has a child with special needs seeks answers to these questions.  In response, parents are advised to prepare a “Letter of Intent” that will provide guidance for caregivers into the future. However, through no fault of their own, parents are rarely able to complete this vital task.

Here are the Top 5 reasons preventing parents from creating their Letter of Intent:

#1.   Getting organized.
There are hundreds of constantly changing details to organize.  Many parents simply don’t have the time or energy to organize the myriad of details of their child’s life, let alone putting them down on paper.

#2.   Formatting.

Your Letter of Intent is a “road map” to guide others, so it must be comprehensive, yet easy to follow.   Finding no practical tools to help format a Letter of Intent, many parents simply abandon the task.

#3.   Updating.
Your child’s life is constantly changing, so the document must be constantly changed. Word-processed documents are cumbersome and not easy to update (even if you can remember where you saved it!).

#4.   Saving and sharing.
Your updated Letter of Intent must be shared with others after you are gone. You will select different people to fill key roles over time. Mailing out updated copies yearly to different people during your lifetime is a nearly impossible task to manage.

#5.   Getting Started.

Facing this daunting task, many parents are simply frozen by “writer’s block.”  How much information should I include? How much info is too much? How can I not lose it?  How can I easily update the document? How can I share my Letter of Intent with the right people after I am gone?  With so much to think about, there is no clear place to start.

Parents will be relieved to know that an Application is now available that solves all of these problems: Vestidd.

What is Vestidd?

Vestidd is an application that lets parent create a Vest for a child with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (Vest i d d).  Your Vest is where you store, remember, find and connect everything and everyone that matters in your child’s life.  Just like a life-vest, Vestidd will help keep your child safe and protected into the future.

How does Vestidd work?
To create a Vest and get started on your Letter of Intent, go to www.vestidd.com to sign up.    Vestidd is organized by Sections and Pockets.   Sections cover each major area of your child’s life.  Pockets are where you fill in specific and unique information about your child.  Vestidd has pre-organized everything, so you don’t have to.  You can jump right in and go.

Everything in One Place.
Say goodbye to post-its, binders, and email chaos.  All of the information that used to be spread out across your house and your brain will now have a single home.  Vestidd lets you remember, find and connect everything and everyone that matters in the life of your child with special needs.

Easy Updates.
Vestidd is a Cloud application that works from any device –   iPhone, iPad, tablet, android, mac, pc – they all work with Vestidd.  This means you can get to your Vest from any device and easily update information as the need arises.  Your Vest is always there, keeping key information available at your fingertips.

Sharing.
Vestidd lets you connect family members and your child’s support team with just the information they need. When you update your Vest, team members are kept current with automatic update notifications.  You can revoke sharing privileges at any time.  You can also share Vest information by printing out a hard copy.  Vestidd’s sharing tools allow you to pass on current and comprehensive information about your child to future caregivers, so that they can continue to update your Vest, for your child’s lifetime.

Superpowers.

Vestidd has many other features that help families with special needs. You can take a tour and learn more at www.vestidd.com.
My wife, Sue, and I created Vestidd to help parents complete the special needs planning puzzle.

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Innovative Ways of Reaching Children With Autism

April 2nd, 2014

By: Giulia Frasca, Esq., Littman Krooks LLP

There are an estimated two million people with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the United States.  Over 500,000 of those diagnosed are children.  The incidence rate of Autism increased to one in 68 children.  There is a five-to-one prevalence of Autism in boys over girls so that the incidence rate of Autism for boys is one in every 54 boys.  E ach child diagnosed with Autism and each case of Autism is unique such that there is not one particular treatment, program, or methodology that will work for all children diagnosed with Autism.  Recently, an article published in the New York Times titled “Reaching My Autistic Son Through Disney” by Ron Suskind discussed how watching Disney movies and relating to the characters in those movies helped one child diagnosed with Autism break through and communicate verbally, in writing and through art with other members of his family.

Today, school districts use several different, innovative methodologies for teaching children with Autism.  Most schools teach children with Autism using Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA), which has been proven to work for children with the most severe cases of Autism.  ABA focuses on changing the environment around the child in order to help the child achieve a task rather than simply telling the child what to do.  ABA aims to build a direct relationship between desirable outcomes and the environment the child is in.

Another methodology called Naturalistic Teaching Strategies involves creating an environment in which children are motivated to communicate a specific need or want by, for example, placing a favorite toy on a shelf, out of reach so that the child will be motivated to ask for it.  Children with more advanced language skills will be prompted to ask a question or speak a full sentence.

Yet another, newer methodology, Social Communication, Emotional Regulation and Transactional Support (SCERTS) combines several different treatments and identifies and builds on a student’s strengths, then creates strategies to improve the student’s weaknesses.

Autism Spectrum Disorder teaching methodologies are constantly evolving in order to address the broad spectrum of needs and the different ways in which children develop.  Littman Krooks LLP’s special education attorneys strive to keep abreast of new developments in these areas in order to be the strongest advocates for families with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

The seventh annual World Autism Awareness Day is Tuesday, April 2, 2014. Learn more about events in your area by visiting the Autism Speaks website or visit our blog at: http://www.littmankrooks.com/blog/ Was this article of interest to you? If so, please LIKE our Facebook Page by clicking here.

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Podcast: Ensuring the future of your child with special needs

February 25th, 2014

This podcast discusses Legal and Financial Planning with guests Bernard A. Krooks, Esq., Managing Partner of Littman Krooks LLP and Ryan Platt, Chartered Special Needs Consultant, Founder, A Special Needs Plan and is moderated by Keith Caldwell, founder, www.failuretoplan.com.

Learn about Wills, Trusts, Special Needs Trust, Guardianship, Defining your child’s lifetime needs, Government Benefits, Proactive Tax Strategies, Communication Techniques, and the importance of integrating all the necessary pieces into a cohesive plan, so the vision you have for your child’s life can become a reality whether you are here or not.

[POWERPRESS]

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Smart Pens, Tablets, and Word Prediction Software: Utilizing Technology for High School & College Students (part 1 of 2)

February 7th, 2014

Our latest guest bloggers are Casey Schmalacker, Academic Coach and Samantha Feinman, MS.Ed., TSSH., Program Director at New Frontiers in Learning. This is part one of a two-part series.


Utilizing Technology for High School and College Students: Part 1of 2

As we move through this digital age, students in high school and college are increasingly using technology as a mechanism to support learning. Technology can be used in a multitude of ways, ranging from electronic organizational systems and digital reminders, to supporting more complex academic tasks through the use of computer software. Assistive technology, specifically, has been infused into the daily schedules of students with disabilities to support the removal of learning barriers that some individuals may face. Among students utilizing assistive technology to improve academic learning, high school and college students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in particular have increasingly incorporated the use of technology into the learning environment.

Assistive technology consists of services and devices that provide equal education opportunities to students with disabilities by providing supports that focus on individual-specific needs. Assistive technology has been used to improve skills in areas such as note-taking, reading comprehension, and expository and narrative writing. Such tasks are integral to the academic experience, in that a student’s ability to excel in these areas most often is directly related to their level of success. This article will discuss why assistive technology is necessary for students with ASD transitioning from high school to college, as well as outline three forms of effective assistive technology, and how one would incorporate such technology into the learning environment.

Research has demonstrated that the use of computers has resulted in the improvement of the skills of students with ASD in a variety of different areas, such as attention, fine motor, and generalization (Habash, 2005). Improvement of skills is many times the desirable goal, and therefore technology can act as a means to accommodating specific deficits that prevent goal attainment.

In order to achieve success in the high school and college arenas, students need to be able to access supports to successfully comprehend large amounts of reading material and class lecture and discussion, as well as write at a much more independent and sophisticated level. When students demonstrate weaknesses in these areas, they are unable to demonstrate their maximum potential, and their work may become an inaccurate representation of their true capabilities. Assistive technology can begin to bridge the gap between student obstacles and the execution of their academic responsibilities.

Developing strategies and systems for use with assistive technology is important to master during high school so students can effectively deploy the technologies at the college level. The college work environment has a few fundamental differences from high school that can increase the difficulty level, especially for students with ASD. Class time at universities is devoted to many more lectures, requiring vigorous note-taking on course content that, many times, is important to know for exams, class projects, and discussion. Sometimes the material covered in class is not covered anywhere else (i.e., textbook, PowerPoint slides, handouts, etc.), requiring techniques to ensure all material is accessible by the student. Outside of the classroom, reading materials tend to also become more taxing, covering abstract topics that can be difficult to understand. As opposed to reading simply for content, there is an increased emphasis of being able to analyze readings. Further, while high school classes tend to provide guided questions to lead the student through the readings, college classes tend to rely on the student to identify key topics and themes.

The fundamental changes above can seem hard to manage; however, by establishing assistive technology supports while still in high school, such transitions can be managed in a much more efficient manner. Creating a course of action is important for students with ASD because environmental changes may lead to high levels of stress that can drastically affect a student’s ability to participate and succeed in the learning environment.

This two-part blog series will include examples of how technology can be used to support students with ASD in the learning environment with a focus specifically on supporting students at the high school and college levels. Look forward to spotlights on Tablets and Computers, Smart Pens, and Word Prediction Software.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Samantha Feinman, Program Director, New Frontiers in Learning at sfeinman@nfil.net.

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